This worksheet supports Common Core State Standards CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2 and CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.2

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Main Idea - Science (Grade 8)

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Main Idea - Science

Have you ever studied a photograph of an igloo? It seems as if it would be a cold, hard, uncomfortable place to live, yet for many years, this type of home has provided shelter for many of Canada's and Greenland's Inuit tribes.

Made from blocks of ice and snow, igloos are generally made in a circular shape. Gaps between blocks are packed with ice. A tunnel entrance allows people to enter and exit, but protects from cold winds. In addition, the snow works as insulation. Between it and the heat generated by people and oil lamps, the temperature inside an igloo can be moderately comfortable.

Beds are put in the upper part of the igloo since heat rises. Bedding is made from willow twigs covered with animal furs and skin. The other half of the igloo is typically used for cooking, eating, talking and resting. Some igloos include small windows for letting in sunlight.
What is the main idea of this passage?
  1. The Inuit once lived in igloos in Canada and Greenland.
  2. Igloos are easier to build than some may believe.
  3. Snow provides a surprising amount of insulation for igloos.
  4. Igloos are more comfortable to live in than most people realize.
What would make the best title for this story?
  1. Life in the Inuit Village
  2. Creating Igloo Bed from Nature
  3. The Unexpected Coziness of the Igloo
  4. Cooking Inside a Home of Ice and Snow
Which detail would fit best in the first paragraph of the text?
  1. The Inuit often relied on igloos on hunting trips.
  2. Oil lamps were usually filled with oil from whales.
  3. Boots and clothes were often put near a window to dry.
  4. The Inuit ate seal, caribou and fish, both raw and cooked.
After a long day at work, there is nothing like a good sleep! Just like on Earth, a worker in space goes to bed at night then wakes up the next day and prepares for work all over again. There are a few differences, though.

In space there is no up or down and there is no gravity. As a result, astronauts are weightless and can sleep in any orientation. However, they have to attach themselves to a wall, a seat or a bunk bed inside the crew cabin so they don't float around and bump into something.

Space shuttle and space station crews usually sleep in sleeping bags. On the space shuttle, astronauts can also sleep in the commander's seat, the pilot's seat or in bunk beds. There are only four bunk beds in the space shuttle. So that means on missions with five or more astronauts, the other crewmembers have to sleep in a sleeping bag attached to their seats or to a wall.

On the space station there are two small crew cabins. Each one is just big enough for one person. Inside both crew cabins is a sleeping bag and a large window to look out in space. Currently, space station crews have three astronauts living and working in space for months at a time.

Where does the third astronaut sleep? If it's okay with the commander, the astronaut can sleep anywhere in the space station so long as they attach themselves to something.

Generally, astronauts are scheduled for eight hours of sleep at the end of each mission day. Like on Earth, though, they may wake up in the middle of their sleep period to use the toilet, or stay up late and look out the window. During their sleep period, astronauts have reported having dreams and nightmares. Some have even reported snoring in space!

The excitement of being in space and motion sickness can disrupt an astronaut's sleep pattern.

Sleeping in close quarters can also be disruptive since crewmembers can easily hear each other.

Sleeping in the shuttle's cockpit can also be difficult since the Sun rises every 90 minutes during a mission. The sunlight and warmth entering the cockpit window is enough to disturb a sleeper who is not wearing a sleep mask.

When it is time to wake up, the Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas, sends wake up music to the crew. Usually, Mission Control will pick a song for a different astronaut each day. Sometimes a family member will request a favorite song for their particular loved one.

Depending on the astronaut, Mission Control will play all types of music such as rock and roll, country and western, classical, or Russian music. However, only a shuttle crew receives wake up music while a space station crew uses an alarm clock.
What is the main idea of this passage?
  1. Sleep needs shift dramatically while on the space shuttle.
  2. Astronauts would oversleep if not for Mission Control's morning call.
  3. Sleeping on the space shuttle requires a mix of adaptation and creativity.
  4. Motion sickness makes a good night's sleep on the shuttle very difficult.
What would make the best title for this passage?
  1. A Mission Control Alarm Clock
  2. Inside a Four Person Space Mission
  3. Eating, Sleeping, and Living in Space
  4. Finding Sleep Miles above the Earth
Why does a sleep mask help some of the astronauts rest better?
  1. It muffles the sounds of the other crew members.
  2. It blocks the sun's light coming through the windows.
  3. It helps to convince the brain it is still night time.
  4. It plays personalized music that is soothing to the astronauts.

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